Kati

Appendix 1 Ngā Kete Kōrero Revised Framework (English)

He Mihi

E ngā mana, e ngā reo, e ngā karangatanga maha – tēnā koutou katoa.

 

Tuatahi rā ka mihi ki a koutou i whakapau kaha nei ki te rangaranga i Ngā Kete Kōrero hei pou tarāwaho mō ngā pukapuka e tautoko ana i ngā mahi whakaora i tō tātou nei reo rangatira i roto i ngā kura.  Nā koutou te mahi nui, nā koutou hoki te tūāpapa i whakatakoto, arā, nā koutou anō hoki te huarahi i para.

 

Ka rua, ka mihi ake ki Te Rōpū o Huia, nā koutou te mahi nui ki te āta wewete, ki te āta rangahau i Ngā Kete Kōrero kia whanake ake, kia whakaputaina he rautaki kia āta wānanga, kia āta whakatau i ngā taumata o tēnā tuhinga, o tēnā tuhinga.

 

Otirā, nō te tau nei mātou kua kōtuituia katoatia ngā mahi nō ērā wā kia puta ake a Ngā Kete Kōrero i tōna whānuitanga, i tōna hōhonutanga hei tuituinga whakaniko mō tātou katoa.

 

Nō reira, ki a koutou katoa, otirā ki ngā kaiako e whakapau kaha nei ki te hāpai i tō tātou nei reo rangatira, tēnā koutou, tēnā koutou, tēnā anō tātou katoa.

Explanation of the refresh of Ngā Kete Kōrero levelling framework 

Ngā Kete Kōrero Levelling Framework organises texts designed to support ākonga learning to read in Māori into increasing levels of difficulty.

 

In this refresh of the Framework, the original eleven levels have been expanded to twenty with the addition of half, or transitional levels. This provides increased support to kaiako when matching the instructional needs of ākonga to texts and enables finer grained achievement information to be captured as ākonga progress through the levels.

 

The new kete symbols that reference the original design have been developed for Kete Harakeke to Kete Muka (previously referred to as Miro). The weaving of kete and the materials used provides the metaphor for ‘learning to read’.   The learner weaver begins the process of learning to weave with harakeke.  As their skill level develops they will progress on to using more challenging materials such as; kiekie, pīngao and eventually muka.  Kete Muka are considered by many to be the ultimate in kete weaving.  Weaving muka requires the expert weaver to utilise all their skills and knowledge to combine each miro strand that forms the kete muka.  The strands are likened to the skills and knowledge required by the developing reader to make meaning of the increasingly complex and challenging texts. The ākonga will draw on both their developing and consolidated knowledge as they advance through the reading levels.

 

The new symbols:

The symbols for transitional levels:

The associated colours the kete symbols:

Any texts deemed to be more difficult than Kete Pīngao O.Kete Muka are at Kete Muka level however, texts at Kete Muka level are yet to be differentiated into sublevels.  

Exemplars

As part of the refresh, at least three exemplars have been identified for each of the twenty Ngā Kete Kōrero levels (refer to Table 1). These have been selected because they exemplify characteristics of high quality texts at those levels. At least three of the following criteria are needed in order for a text to qualify as an exemplar:

  • Is child centred
  • Has a Māori theme or reflects Māori experiences
  • Interests, inspires and delights learners
  • Readily supports Māori language and literacy acquisition (language function/āheinga reo, language resources/puna reo and language strategies/rautaki reo)
  • The purpose of the text is evident to enable links to be made to broader language and literacy learning experiences particularly writing (tuhituhi) and oral language (reo ā-waha). Descriptions of these appear in Table 2.

Notes about Kete Harakeke A (KHa) and Kete Harakeke A.Harakeke E (KHa.e)

Exemplar texts for entry levels Kete Harakeke A and Harakeke A.E represent the range of high quality reading materials ākonga should be exposed to in order to support their emerging language and literacy development (see Table 1 below). Kete Harakeke A and Harakeke A.Harakeke E are generally associated with the first 6 to 12 months in the schooling of a year one ākonga. Harakeke E is an indication of the readiness of the ākonga to increasingly engage with texts at which point a pānui arahanga (guided reading) approach is appropriate.

 

How quickly an ākonga progresses through these levels will depend on their Māori language proficiency and the extent to which they have acquired foundation literacy skills and knowledge.

Notes about the remaining levels Harakeke E (KHe) to Kete Muka (KM)

Exemplar texts for Kete Harakeke E to Kete Muka represent the range of high quality materials within each level to support reading instruction in a relatively systematic way by organising them into increasing levels of difficulty. The kete denote a text’s best fit level for use with pānui arahanga (guided reading approach). The degree of challenge in a text should enable ākonga to practice, develop, apply and consolidate their developing literacy knowledge and skills.  The appropriate matching of a text to the instructional level of the ākonga enables them to engage without the frustration of having to over process text in order to read with comprehension.

Supporting resources

   

 

Other uses of texts levelled under the Ngā Kete Kōrero Framework

Teachers will need to use their discretion in deciding whether a text is also suitable for either shared reading (pānui ngātahi) or independent reading (pānui takitahi). In general, texts higher than the instructional/guided reading level of an ākonga can be used for shared reading. Conversely, texts lower than the instructional/guided reading level of an ākonga are likely to be suitable for independent reading.

 

Texts identified in Ngā Kete Kōrero Framework also have wider applications and are rich and important sources of stimulus material for oral language (kōrero ā-waha) and writing (tuhituhi) instruction or to support learning across the curriculum.

 

Table 1 Ngā Kete Kōrero Framework Exemplar Texts

Ngā Kete Kōrero levels

Abbreviation

Taumata: TMOA

Texts that exemplify the level

Text purpose (Best fit)

 

Kete Harakeke A

  

KHa

KHa.e

1 He Pīpī

Aa Arapureta (Kohinga Pīpī)

Ara Pānui (Kohinga Pīpī)

Tōku Manawa  (Puka kupukore)

Te Māra Kai a Koro (Puka kupukore)

Hōhepa Te Pūru (Puka rahi)

Te Taniwhā Me Te Poraka (Puka rahi)

Te Tuatara Māngere (Tuhinga takitahi)

Kei Hea Te Tuna (Rotarota/Waiata)

Not applciable

Not applicble

Tūhono  

Taki

Whakangahau

Whakangahau

Whakangahau

Whakangahau

Exemplar: Arapū texts

Exemplar: Textless books

Exemplar: Enlarged books

 

Exemplar: Individual titles

Exemplar: Poem/song

 

 

Ngā Kete Kōrero Level

Abbreviation

TMOA

Titles that exemplify the level

Text purpose (Best fit)

Kete Harakeke E

KHe

1 He Kaha

He Pōtae

Te Rā Kura

Kānga Papā  

Whakaahua

Taki

Taki/Tohutohu

Kete Harakeke E.

Kete Harakeke I

KHe.KHi

He Mamae

Taku Teina Mōhio

Ko Au Tēnei

Taki

Whakaahua

Tūhono

Kete Harakeke I

KHi

1 He Kaha Ake

Rite Tonu

I te Pō

Te Mahi Tōhi

Whakaahua

Whakaahua

Tohutohu

Kete Harakeke I.

Kete Kiekie A

KHi.KKa

 

Ehara!

Ngā Ringawera

Te Awhiawhi

Nāku

Whakaahua

Whakaahua

Taki

Taki

Kete Kiekie A

KKa

1 He Pakari

Taku Tātaitai

Mā Wai?

Te Pāoro

Whakaahua

Taki

Whakangahau

Kete Kiekie A.

Kiekie E

KKa. e

Te Whakataetae Waka Ama  

Pāpā, He Aha Tēnā?  

Hana Koko

Ngā Mahi Rēhia

Taki

 

Taki

 

Taki

Whakaahua

Kete Kiekie E

KKe

1 He Pakari - 2

Ko Te Wā Moe

Kia mōhio ai ahau

Me pēhea ahau?

Paki

Taki

Paki

Kete Kiekie E.

Kiekie I

KKe.i

Ngā Mahi o te Rāhoroi

Tā Mātou Haere ki Poneke

Paru Kukū

Te Mahi Aihikirīmi

Taki

 

Taki

 

Whiti whakangahau

Tohutohu

Kete Kiekie I

KKi

2

Te Rou Mamao

Māku te Mahi

Nō Whea Ahau?

Paki

Whakaari

Whakangahau/

Tūhono

Kete Kiekie I.

Kete Pīngao A

KKi.KPa

Engari, Mō te Aha?

Taku Reme

He Rangi Pai mō te Māngoingoi

Taki

Taki

Paki

Kete Pīngao A

KPa

2 - 3

I Aua Wā Hoki

Te Waea Pūkoro

Weiho mā te Tūrehu hei Utu

Whakaahua

Taki

Paki whakangahau

Kete Pīngao A.E

KPa.e

Tōku Koroua Hīanga

Te Kiwi

Kānga Kōpiro

Taki whakangahau

Whakaahua

Whakaahua/Tohutohu

Kete Pīngao E

KPe

3

I Roto i Tōku Wharenui

Kohokoho

Kia Piri Mai

Tuhinga Tuhono

 

Whakaahua/Taki

Paki Whakangahau

Kete Pīngao E.I

KPe.i

Engari koe, Karukaru  

Te Tōtara Rangatira

Ko Tiwha

Taki/Whakaahua

 

Whakaahua

Taki whakaahua

Kete Pīngao I

KPi

3 - 4

He Mana tō te Hau

Ākuanei Koe i a Au

Te Whakakai Ramarama

Whakaahua

Paki Whakangahau

Whakaahua

Kete Pīngao I.O

KPi.o

Te Tākaro Kaipara

Ā Te Wā

Ko Hinemoa rāua ko Tūtānekai

He Kohikohinga 58

Taki

Paki Whakangahau

Paki Whakangahau

Kete Pīngao O

KPo

4

He Pai te Mahi Tahi

Ka Piki a Tāwhaki ki te Rangi

Te Tangi a Hinepūtehue

He Kohikohinga 58, wh. 4-8

Whakangahau

Paki whakamārama

 

Pūrākau   whakamārama

Kete Pīngao O.Kete Muka

KPo.KM

Te Pō Whakangahau

Te Tautoko 71, wh 12-17

Taniwha

Tautoko 73, wh 2-8

Ki Ō Rahi Te

 Tautoko 70, wh 18 - 23

Whakaari whakangahau

 

Paki Whakamārama

 

Paki Whakamārama

Kete Muka A

 

 

KMa

4- 5

Te Pī Miere

He Rotarota Poroporoaki ki a Hirini Melbourne

He Kohikohinga 59

Takenga Pūtaiao

Mihi/Poroporoaki

Table 2:  General Purpose Descriptions: He Kura Tuhituhi

 

He Tuhinga Taki

Recounts

He Tuhinga Tohutohu

Instructions

He Tuhinga Whakaahua

Descriptions

He Tuhinga Takenga Pūtaiao

Scientific Explanations

He Tuhinga Tautohe

Arguments

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purpose

To relate, in sequence, an event or events that have already occurred.

To instruct the reader how to carry out a task. The main objective is that the reader can follow the instructions.

To describe the appearance and the characteristics of a person, an animal or a thing and how it acts or is used.

To explain a natural phenomenon, or a phenomenon caused by human activity, from the viewpoint of a scientist by answering a research question.

To argue and to persuade the reader to see your point of view on an issue. The objective is that the reader will agree with your point of view.

Types of writing

Factual recount

Imaginative historical recount

Instructions for how to carry out a task

Instructions for how to play a game

Directions for how to get to a destination

Personal description

General description

Scientific explanation

Personal argument

General argument

Table 3:  Māori Purpose Descriptions: He Manu Taketake

 

He Tuhinga Tūhono

Writing to express collective identity

 

He Tuhinga Mihi

Writing to acknowledge

 

 

He Tuhinga Pānui

Writing to announce a kaupapa


He Tuhinga Whakangahau

Writing to uplift and stimulate

 

He Tuhinga Paki Whakamārama

Explanatory narratives

 

He Tuhinga Pūrākau Whakamārama

Origin narratives

 

Purpose

To express writers’ connections to their ancestors, their ‘place to stand’, their waka

To acknowledge and celebrate people or features of the natural world.

To invite people to come to support an important kaupapa.

To uplift and stimulate mind, body and spirit.

To explain an aspect of the natural world.

To explain the origin of aspects of the world and the benefits of those aspects for people.

Types of writing

Te whakapapa

An expression of collective identity

Te pepeha

An expression of collective identity

Te paki tūhono

A narrative that explains a collective identity

Te mihi ki te taiao

An acknowledgement to the natural world

Te mihi ki te hunga mate

An acknowledgment to the dead

Te mihi ki te hunga ora

An acknowledgment to the living

Te pānui

An announcement

Te paki whakangahau

An entertaining narrative

Te whakaari whakangahau

An entertaining play

Te whiti whakangahau

An entertaining poem

Te paki whakamārama tuku iho

A traditional narrative that explains a feature of the natural world

Te paki whakamārama pohewa

A narrative, which has been conceived and composed by the writer, that explains a feature of the natural world

Te pūrākau whakamārama

A narrative that explains the origin of aspects of our world

Table 4: Revised Ngā Kete Kōrero Chart To Support the Writing, Production and Levelling of Texts

Level-Stage

Visual Links

Print Size and Spacing

Text volume and placement

Themes, Ideas and Concepts

Vocabulary and sentence structure

 

Harakeke A

Harakeke A/E

Arapū Texts:

The item representing the focus letter/sound is clearly identifiable and familiar to the ākonga

Textless Books:

Pictures/illustrations provide strong contextual clues that support oral discussion, inspire, delight and invite personal responses

Enlarged Books and Individual Titles:

Pictures/illustrations/diagrams strongly support the text and provide contextual clues: that facilitate meaning-making in general for predicting and confirming the meaning of words

Poems/Songs

Illustrations reflect the theme

Arapū Texts:

Font size 24+

 

Textless Books

Not applicable

 

Enlarged Books:

Font size 48+

 

Individual titles

Not applicable

 

Poems and Songs

Font size 48+

Arapū Texts:

  • Text placement is consistent on all pages
  • Number of pages can vary
  • Up to 50 running words

Textless Books

Not applicable

 

Enlarged Books and individual titles:

  • Words are either consistently at the top or the bottom of the page
  • Number of pages can vary
  • Number of running words can vary

Poems and Songs

Main body of text is consistently to the left or centred  

Arapū Texts

Focus on familiar objects

based on one easily distinguishable  central theme or idea

 

Textless Books:

One simple theme that highly appeals to ākonga and is relevant and appropriate to the age group

 

Enlarged Books and Individual Titles:

Themes are of high interest and likely to inspire and delight

 

Poems and Songs

  • Themes are relevant, child centric of high interest and likely to inspire and delight
  • There are strong elements of rhythm and rhyme.
  • Likely to have actions that support meaning

Arapū Texts

Text comprises mainly labels or short nominal or verbal phrases

Textless Books:

Not applicable

Enlarged Books and Individual Titles:

  • Language structures are mainly repetitive, predictable and include a small number of interest/ novel words.  
  • Provide access to texts that are beyond ākonga reading capabilities
  • Some texts can be rhythmic, and include rhyme

Poems and songs

  • Provide access to texts that are beyond ākonga reading capabilities
  • Some texts can be rhythmic, and include rhyme
 

Level-Stage

Visual Links

Print Size and Spacing

Text volume and placement

Themes, Ideas and Concepts

Vocabulary and sentence structure

 

Harakeke

Pictures/illustrations/diagrams strongly support the text and provide contextual clues:

  • that facilitate meaning-making in general
  • for predicting and confirming the meaning of unknown words
  • Print is organised, clearly formatted and distinguishable from illustrations / pictures/diagrams
  • Font size: 20
  • Extra spacing between words to allow one-to-one matching of spoken and written
  • Mainly one sentence per page
  • Words are either consistently at the top or bottom of the page
  • 20 – 100 running words
  • Up to 8 pages of text
  • One or two simple themes or ideas set in highly familiar contexts
  • Simple language structures with mainly repetitive, predictable elements and a small number of interest/ novel words
  • Text comprises mainly nominal phrases (He kurī) , verbal phrases (Kei te oma ia.), adjectival phrases (He ngata iti tēnā.) and locative phrases (Kei runga te manu i te rākau.)
 
 
 

Kiekie

Pictures/illustrations/diagrams support the text and provide contextual clues:

  • that facilitate meaning-making in general
  • for predicting and confirming the meaning of unknown words
  • Font size: 18
  • Up to 5 lines of text per page
  • Words mainly at bottom of page but may include variation in placement either centered or to the left
  • Up to 250 running words
  • Up to 12 pages of text
  • Themes, plots or subplots are set in a combination of familiar and more unfamiliar/ novel contexts
  • Some variation in sentence starters and/or sentence structures /patterns including examples of passive voice (reo hāngū) although some repetitive, predictable elements remain
  • Higher number of novel words and content specific words per page (particularly nouns and statives)
  • There are strong contextual clues to support ākonga to deduce the meaning of any figurative language used in a text
 

Guidelines for placing texts into the frameworks

The following guidelines may be used by publishers and writers of new texts in Māori, by text levellers and by kaiako looking to place texts that currently sit outside the framework.

 

Figure 1: Guidelines for placing texts into Ngā Kete Kōrero Framework

STEP ONE: Read the text carefully

and refer to the Ngā Kete Kōrero levelling chart (Table 4) to form a first impression judgement about whether the text is at Kete Harakeke, Kiekie, Pīngao or Muka. Any texts that are deemed more difficult than Kete Pīngao/Kete Muka are likely to be Kete Muka

STEP TWO:  Examine the criteria

in the Ngā Kete Kōrero levelling chart (Table 4) to reflect on your initial judgement and to alter or confirm the primary level (Harakeke, Kiekie, Pīngao, Muka) you have tentatively assigned.

STEP THREE: Refer to the exemplar texts

associated with the primary level you identified in STEP TWO. Compare the text to these exemplars and assign a tentative kete.

Separating the exemplars into two sets when making the comparison

i.e. Primary Levels (KHa, KHe, KHi, KKa, KKe, KKi, KPa, KPe, KPi, KPo, KM) and Transitional Levels ( KHa.e, KHe.i,  KHi.KKa, KKa.e, KKe.i, KKi.KPa, KPa.e, KPe.i, KPi.o, KPo.KMa, KMa) is likely to lead to a more accurate result.

STEP FOUR: Moderate your decision

regarding specific kete with others including ākonga and make any adjustments to that level based on feedback you receive from that process.

 

Guidelines for selecting texts for assessment purposes

Kete Harakeke

KHa, KHa.e

Select texts that the ākonga is highly familiar with including:

Simple caption books. Ensure there are more basic words in the text, than novel or unfamiliar words in the text

Dictated texts:

These are provided by the ākonga using any of the following stimuli to generate their ‘version’:

  • textless books
  • personal experiences
  • reconstructions of parts of texts from the instructional programme (enlarged books and individual titles)

Write the words the ākonga provides into a sentences or two leaving sufficient space between the words to allow for 1 to 1 matching. Spreading the words across two or more lines will also allow for return sweep.

Characteristics of the ākonga at Harakeke A and Harakeke A.E[1]. The ākonga:

Displays ‘reading like’ behaviours when interacting with texts, such as scanning pages, turning books  page by page, and talking about the story. They rely heavily on topic knowledge, pictures and memorisation when ‘reading’ texts they have previously listened to. They may not yet be able to consistently match spoken words to written words.

Check in particular that the ākonga:

  • Knows where to start reading
  • Reads from left to right
  • Returns to the first word in the second line ( i.e. return sweep) where the text comprises two or more lines of text
  • Can match some spoken words to written words
  • Can identify one or two basic words when prompted
  • Will provide a word that still makes sense in context, even when that word is different to the one in the text (semantics)
  • Is willing to give unfamiliar words a go

KHe, KH.i, KHi, KHi.KKa

Characteristics of the ākonga at Harakeke E+. The ākonga:

Uses memory of familiar, predictable texts and their developing sound/letter knowledge to match some spoken words with written words. They are focussed on gaining an overall meaning of texts rather than reading all words accurately. They read and comprehend texts with support and use personal knowledge, known vocabulary and illustrations to gain an understanding of texts.

Select a text or ask the ākonga to select a text they have recently been supported to read using guided instructional approach.

These texts should have a simple and familiar theme, repetitive, predictable text structure and an acceptable ratio of interest/novel words to high frequency words (approximately 1 interest word to every 5 high frequency words).

Check in particular that the ākonga:

  • Is matching spoken words to written words fairly consistently
  • Will provide a word that still makes sense in context, even when that word is different to the one in the text (semantics)
  • Will refer to the picture to confirm or predict words or meaning (semantics)
  • Uses their knowledge of letters and sounds to attempt to read an unknown word (visual)
  • Makes an attempt to correct an error
  • Has enough oral language proficiency to talk about the text by retelling it or relating it to their own experiences

Kete Kiekie

KKa, KKa.KKe, KKe, KKe.KKi, KKi, KKi.KPa

Characteristics of the ākonga at Kiekie. The ākonga:

Recognises a bank of frequently used words and uses a small range of strategies to comprehend texts. Reading of familiar texts may be slow and deliberate as they focus on every word, using sounding out as a primary word identification strategy.

Select a text or ask the ākonga to select a text they have recently been supported to read using guided instructional approach (i.e. a seen text).

These texts should consistent mainly of repetitive sentence patterns comprising one to two sentences per page and/or up to 5 lines of text. The ratio of interest/novel words to high frequency words is approximately 1 interest word to every 5 high frequency words. Look for texts ranging from 100 to 150 words with the expectation the text can be read in one sitting.

Check in particular that the ākonga:

  • Is consistently matching spoken words to written words
  • Provides a word that makes sense in context and either resembles the word in the text (e.g. has similar letters, beginning, or medial and/or end) or reflects correct Māori language structure (syntax) when making errors  
  • Refers to the picture to confirm or predict words or gain meaning when challenged with an unfamiliar word/phrase in the text (semantics)
  • Uses their knowledge of letters and sounds to decode an unknown word (visual)
  • Recognises an error and attempts to correct it

Kete Pīngao

 

KPa, KPa.KPe, KPe, KPe.KPi, KPi, KPi.KPo, KPo, KPo.KMa

Characteristics of the ākonga at Pīngao. The ākonga:

Has mastery over the letter-sound relationship to the extent that they are able to accurately decode most or all words in a text, even highly unfamiliar ones. They are increasingly integrating various strategies to comprehend text and can discuss the effectiveness of these strategies.     

Select a text or ask the ākonga to select a text they have recently been supported to read using guided, shared instructional or independent approach (i.e. a seen text).

Look for complete texts that range from 250 to 400 words. A complete text is one that has a beginning and an end within the specified (250 - 400) word limit. The ākonga should read the first 100 words before any formal assessment observation is made. The next 150 to 300 words are generally when we can better observe how the ākonga manages challenges and/or where an over reliance on visual cues (decoding) is their primary strategy. (Refer to the list below of behaviours that indicate a text is more difficult than oral reading of it suggests). You might also want to present a text to the ākonga that they are less familiar with using the same word limit and guidelines for a seen text.  In this instance, allow them a little time to independently preview the text. ‘Unseen’ texts can add valuable information and indicate how well they are integrating knowledge skills and strategies under more challenging circumstances.

Check in particular that the ākonga:

  • Provides a word that still makes sense in context and either resembles the word in the text (e.g. has similar letters, beginning, or medial and/or end) or reflects correct Māori language structure (syntax) when making errors  
  • Will refer to the picture to confirm or predict words or meaning (semantics)
  • Uses their knowledge of letters and sounds to decode an unknown word (visual)
  • Recognises an error and successfully corrects it  

Check in particular for behaviours that indicate the text is more difficult than their oral reading of it suggests: These behaviours include:

  • Slow and laboured rate of reading for substantial parts of the text where they decode the words by breaking them into sound clusters
  • Mispronunciation of words due to incorrect intonation or because parts of the word are incorrectly stressed
  • Providing a ‘nonsense’ word in māori that looks similar to the word in the text being substituted
  • Instances where parts of the reading do not make sense because for example, punctuation is ignored  
  • Lack of detail and limited ability to talk comprehensively about the text or convey their understanding of it.

Kete Muka

KMa+

Characteristics of the ākonga at Muka. The ākonga:

Uses a flexible repertoire of comprehension strategies and critical thinking skills to comprehend texts and to solve problems that arise from unfamiliar structure and vocabulary. They are able to fluently read complex and abstract texts. They can access the layers of information and meaning in a text according to their reading purpose. They read and evaluate multiple texts to revise and refine their understanding.

Select a text or ask the ākonga to select a text they have recently read using the independent approach.

Look for complete texts that range from 300 to 500 words. A complete text is one that has a beginning and an end within the specified word limit. The ākonga should read the first 100 words before any formal assessment observation is made. The next 200 to 400 words are generally when we can better observe how the ākonga manages challenges and/or where an over reliance on visual cues (decoding) is their primary strategy. (Refer to the list below of behaviours that indicate a text is more difficult than oral reading of it suggests).

Check in particular that the ākonga:

  • Provides a word that still makes sense in context and either resembles the word in the text (e.g. has similar letters, beginning, or medial and/or end) or makes reflects correct Māori language structure (syntax) when making errors  
  • Will crosscheck to confirm or predict words or meaning (semantics)
  • Uses their knowledge of letters and sounds to decode an unknown word (visual)
  • Recognises an error and successfully corrects it  

Check in particular for behaviours that indicate the text is more difficult than their oral reading of it suggests: These behaviours include:

  • Slow and laboured rate of reading for substantial parts of the text where they decode the words by breaking them into sound clusters
  • Mispronunciation of words due to incorrect intonation or because parts of the word are incorrectly stressed
  • Providing a ‘nonsense’ word in Māori that looks similar to the word in the text being substituted
  • Instances where parts of the reading do not make sense because for example, punctuation is ignored  
  • Lack of detail and limited ability to talk comprehensively about the text or convey their understanding of it